Inorganic and organic nanomaterials synthesized for biomedical applications have been mostly studied and modified to escape the immune system, for example, to produce bio-persistent drug delivery nanoparticles. However, the huge variability and specificity of cellular and molecular defenses vanish many of the researchers’ efforts to produce efficient immune-stealth materials. Looking at nanomaterial bio-applications up-side-down, it is reasonable to rather exploit their immune-activating properties. Nowadays, we can modify biomaterials at the nanoscale to tailor their cellular fate or membrane interaction. Theoretically, the functionalization of nanomaterials with immune-related molecules (i.e. sugars, lipoproteins or proteins) could specifically bind and activate their cognate receptors and the following pathways. In addition, the selective cell receptor expression could help their preferential targeting, although, the receptor binding and activation are not obvious as for the free molecule. A precise nanomaterial surface chemistry is required to properly add macromolecules that maintain signaling activity. To assure it, a detailed physicochemical characterization of the as-synthesized nanomaterial, as well as its behavior in the biological medium is required. We produced different types of nanoparticles decorated with chemokines to explore their potential immune applications. The “ad hoc” combination with other immune-active molecules can produce the specific response of the innate immune cells, which in turn leads to different adaptive responses. This immune response cascade can be modulated to provide the required adjuvant activity to specific vaccines that would not be significantly immunogenic by themselves. Immune-specific nanomaterials’ chemical and biological characterization in vitro, as well as cell targeting and internalization properties will be shown and discussed in the frame of the latest results in the field.
Audience Take Away:
All asylum-seekers coming to Sweden (100 000-150 000 per year 2010-2019).are offered a voluntary free-of-charge health examination. About 70 % attend the health control, which includes examination for latent tuberculosis with Quantiferon. Patients with active tuberculosis were excluded. Few of them had written documentation of BCG vaccination so the presence of a typical BCG scar was used as evidence that they were BCG vaccinated and vaccine effectiveness was calculated with the formula:
ARU=Attack rate of unvaccinaied
ARV= attack rate of vaccinated
A total of 1404 children and adolescents 0-17 years were included. Of those 1011 had BCG scars (72 %) and 239 had latent tuberculosis (17 %).The vaccine effectiveness was 59 % (95 % CI 48 -67 %, p<0.001). A significant effect was seen in the largest population groups, Afghanistan, Somalia, Syria and Iraq. In conclusion, BCG is effective in preventing latent tuberculosis.
After seven decades of population control by chemically and covertly subverting human reproduction with endocrine disruptors, half the world has reached the last stage of the demographic transition / depopulation program, characterized by inverted population pyramids, has by too many old and not enough young people to bear the old age burden and by a median age over 40years. In response to this un sustainable demographic situation, governments and the UN system have begun a program of rapid depopulation through mandatory immunizations and have unleashed a lab-engineered
pneumococcal virus in China and are spreading it globally in order to have the pretext necessary to force vaccinate adults across the world with cancer causing vaccines designed to bring the global population down to sustainability, but purportedly administered to protect public health. By 2023 the vast majority of adults will have been infected with cancer and 80% of the global population will die of cancer over the coming decades, as planned by our own governments and the UN’s World Health Organization. It is hoped that through this engineered global genocide that will prematurely kill at least half the world’s population, human civilization will reach a stable and sustainable population structure.