Inorganic and organic nanomaterials synthesized for biomedical applications have been mostly studied and modified to escape the immune system, for example, to produce bio-persistent drug delivery nanoparticles. However, the huge variability and specificity of cellular and molecular defenses vanish many of the researchers’ efforts to produce efficient immune-stealth materials. Looking at nanomaterial bio-applications up-side-down, it is reasonable to rather exploit their immune-activating properties. Nowadays, we can modify biomaterials at the nanoscale to tailor their cellular fate or membrane interaction. Theoretically, the functionalization of nanomaterials with immune-related molecules (i.e. sugars, lipoproteins or proteins) could specifically bind and activate their cognate receptors and the following pathways. In addition, the selective cell receptor expression could help their preferential targeting, although, the receptor binding and activation are not obvious as for the free molecule. A precise nanomaterial surface chemistry is required to properly add macromolecules that maintain signaling activity. To assure it, a detailed physicochemical characterization of the as-synthesized nanomaterial, as well as its behavior in the biological medium is required. We produced different types of nanoparticles decorated with chemokines to explore their potential immune applications. The “ad hoc” combination with other immune-active molecules can produce the specific response of the innate immune cells, which in turn leads to different adaptive responses. This immune response cascade can be modulated to provide the required adjuvant activity to specific vaccines that would not be significantly immunogenic by themselves. Immune-specific nanomaterials’ chemical and biological characterization in vitro, as well as cell targeting and internalization properties will be shown and discussed in the frame of the latest results in the field.
Audience Take Away:
All asylum-seekers coming to Sweden (100 000-150 000 per year 2010-2019).are offered a voluntary free-of-charge health examination. About 70 % attend the health control, which includes examination for latent tuberculosis with Quantiferon. Patients with active tuberculosis were excluded. Few of them had written documentation of BCG vaccination so the presence of a typical BCG scar was used as evidence that they were BCG vaccinated and vaccine effectiveness was calculated with the formula:
ARU=Attack rate of unvaccinaied
ARV= attack rate of vaccinated
A total of 1404 children and adolescents 0-17 years were included. Of those 1011 had BCG scars (72 %) and 239 had latent tuberculosis (17 %).The vaccine effectiveness was 59 % (95 % CI 48 -67 %, p<0.001). A significant effect was seen in the largest population groups, Afghanistan, Somalia, Syria and Iraq. In conclusion, BCG is effective in preventing latent tuberculosis.
The pyrexia temperature never damages the cells of the brain or harm the body.
K. M. Yacob (Chief Physician).
Marma Health Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India
Key Words: destroy brain cells, essential blood circulation, Protective covering, energy, vertical height, sensible and discreet action of brain
All treatments for fever are based on the belief
that fits is the result of 41 degrees Celsius temperature and it damages cells of the brain and body. At the same time, there is no evidence-based tests or concrete diagnosing methods to the belief that fits and brain damage is the result of pyrexia .
Necessary ingredients to destroy brain cells and fits cannot be seen in fever. In pyrexia or absence of fever, a fainted
the patient fell on the floor with unconscious state and destroy cells of the brain, and necessary ingredients to become conscious are the same.
When disease increases essential blood circulation and energy level also decreases. The vertical height between the heart and brain is more than one foot. When the disease becomes severe, the ability to pump the blood to the brain decreases. As a result of this brain cells are damaged. so the patient might be paralyzed or may even die.
In pyrexia or absence of fever,
when blood flow to the brain decreases and fits are formed. There is no other way than this to increase blood circulation to the brain. It is a sensible and discreet action of the brain to protect the life or organ.
Recovery from Fits.
The patient becomes conscious before the time to get decreasing the temperature of fever. When the fainted patient lie on the floor, the vertical height between the heart and brain is decreased, blood circulation increased to the brain.
When the fainted patient lie on the floor, The patient can stand straight and lie on bed alternatively. Then the patient can experience himself the intensity of blood circulation. The patient can experience when he stands his blood circulation decreases and when lying on the bed the blood circulation decreases. Besides that, he can also experience increased blood circulation when lie on the bed raise the foot higher than the head.
In order to develop more effective immunological strategies to prevent vibriosis of farmed juvenile’s sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in Egypt, vaccine preparations of formalin-killed whole cell bacterins and used by different administration routes, were investigated. The efficacy of an FKC bacterin of V. algenolyticus and L. anguillarum was tested on single - and booster intraperitoneal injection - immersion (dip and prolonged immersion) vaccinated sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. We carried out 2 challenge tests by both V. algenolyticus and L. anguillarum alternatively on the single - and booster intraperitoneal injection - immersion (dip and prolonged immersion) vaccinated fish 28 d after final vaccination to be tested cross-protection. The results revealed that the relative percent survival (RPS) was 86.66 and 70% in V. algenolyticus and L. anguillarum respectively in fish received a booster vaccination 28 d after the final vaccination. RPS was 73.66 and 80.0; 20.0 and 30.0 % in case of dip immersion (2 min) and prolonged immersion (2 hr) in FKC of V. alginolyticus and FKC of L. anguillarium respectively; during challenged by virulent strain of V. alginolyticus. On the other hand, RPS was 30.0 and 40.0; 52.66 and 60.0 % in case of dip immersion (2 min) and prolonged immersion (2 h) in FKC of V. alginolyticus and FKC of L. anguillarium respectively; during challenged by virulent strain of L. anguillarium. Antibody titres were tested only among 10 prime-vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated (control) sea bass, 28 d postimmunisation, and were found to rise to 7.67 ± 0.67 after 7 days from last vaccination in intraperitoneal injection (Booster dose), while these reading became 10.67 ± 0.49 after 21 days from last vaccination during challenged by virulent strain of V. alginolyticus. The antibody during challenged by virulent strain of L. anguillarium was 5.67 ± 0.33 after 7 days from last vaccination; and 7.33 ± 0.67 after 21 days from last vaccination in the vaccinated fish. Our results demonstrate that FKC of V. alginolyticus by prolonged immersion (2h) and intraperitoneal injection (Booster dose) vaccine can effectively protect juvenile sea bass from V. alginolyticus infection. While the same types and routes of vaccine not able to protect juvenile sea bass from L. anguillarum infection. Also, in conclusion, autogenous bacterin of V. algenolyticus not induces cross-protection to L. anguillarum.
What will audience learn from your presentation?
• Aquacultured farmer
• Researchers in the field of culture marine fish
• Biosecurity in the management of cultured marine fish
• Hatchery of marine fish
• This research provides a practical solution to a problem of control of fish diseases
• This research could simplify in less use of antibiotics
• This research will improve and benefits in increase the immune status of cultured marine fish.
Will fever cure if we treat the cause of disease or the cause of fever?
The physicians are talking about the treatment of fever indifferently. They are talking about not to treat fever but for the underlying cause of fever. At the same time when people have a fever, they instruct to reduce fever urgently.
The cause of fever and cause of disease both are different. The physicians misunderstand the cause of disease as cause of fever. If we remove the cause of disease the fever never cures. If we remove the cause of fever, it can be immediately cured. The basic cause of fever is increased severe inflammation and decreased blood circulation. If we remove the cause of disease, the disease will not be cured.
If a worm eats the stem and leaf of a plant, we can kill the worm with pesticides, then the destroyed part of the plant will not recover completely. Likewise, we can kill some kind of bacteria with antibiotics. But the problems made by bacteria will not be resolved.
The actual treatment to cause of fever.
The actual treatment to fever is to increase blood circulation. Two ways to increase blood circulation. 1. Never allow body temperature to lose 2. Apply heat from outside to the body. When the temperature produced by the body due to fever and heat which we applied on the body combines together, the blood circulation increases.
Then the body will stop to produce heat to increase blood circulation. And the body will get extra heat from outside without any usage of energy.
How can we prove that the cause of fever and cause of disease both are different?
“If we ask any type of question-related to fever by assuming that the cause of fever and cause of disease both are different, we will get a clear answer. If we avoid or evade from this definition, we will never get a proper answer to even a single question
If we do any type of treatment by assuming that the cause of fever and cause of disease both are different, the body will accept the cause of fever, at the same time body will resist whatever treatment to decrease temperature and blood circulation.
No further evidence is required to prove the cause of fever and cause of disease both are different.
A novel mode of action for HIV assumes that production of neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies is the main cause in persisting the viral infection and its protection against destruction by the cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells. This novel postulation directed us to a new treatment formula termed V20E immune peptides combination comprising viral antigen particles and its non-specific Antibodies in oral and injectable form for inhibiting or preventing the disease. A controlled Randomized study was carried out on a total of twenty-one patients (17 males, 4 females; aged 20 38 years) all of them were positive for HIV antibodies and divided them into three groups (A), (B) and (C) each group contains seven patients and another group has only two patients As HIV-negative plasma and were enrolled on to a similar protocol and used them as control Group, we were classifying the first three groups according to their CD4+, CD8+T- cells and Viral load, all of them showed the same clinical symptoms of HIV/AIDS and wrote consent of Acceptance to take the V20E immune peptides combination therapy in the form of SC Injection or oral capsules for 12 weeks. At the end of therapy, all of the patient's viral loads Had reached under the detectable limits (less than 16 copies/ml); also, there were significant Increases of their CD4+ cells count over 45%. According to these findings, this therapeutic Modality was promising for treating HIV-1 disease and human immunodeficiency syndrome.
What will audience learn from your presentation?
HIV continues to be a major health problem world wide, however the situation is particularly serious in asia and africa countries, Therefore , the understanding of HIV mode of action and strategy will reduce more efforts , researches and can open the gate for a development of an effective vaccine or therapy that could help to reduce the severity of the disease and prevent the spreading of the infection. In this study we introduce a novel trail that differ from all the remedial previous trails , using the cellular and humoral immunity to induce a potent therapy and vaccine for curing and preventing HIV.