Researchers are looking for pathogens of shrimp without pathogens or SPF and shrimp tolerant to viral agents that are not pathogenic to humans and can only be pathogenic to shrimp and crustaceans. In 1998, a scientist stated that shrimp and insects could retain viruses for long periods of time without any adverse effects, proving that shrimp had not antibodies. Other research has shown that shrimp and insects can use DNA and RNA instead of antibodies to defend against viral pathogens. French scientists and researchers in the United States conducted research from 2013 to 2020 to prove that shrimp and insects copy viral RNA fragments into DNA and then insert DNA copies into their genomes. Finally, they block the translation into protein. A very surprising result on insects in France showed that fragments in viral RNA copied were seen in both linear and circular shapes, with very stable circular DNA, and the researchers showed that this DNA, which is Called CDVNA, it has the potential to be used as a viral vaccine in shrimp. Researchers are looking for ways to use antibiotics in aquaculture instead of boosting the immune system of invertebrates such as shrimp, especially with compatible safety. One of these measures is the development of a vaccine against shingles in shrimp. It is estimated that the Asian shrimp industry alone experienced an annual loss of 4 billion due to shrimp disease from 2009 to 2018. In one study, Dscam isoforms were detected in vaccinated and unvaccinated shrimp homocytes. Further analysis showed that LvDscam Ig2 and Ig3 regions are functionally important in shrimp-specific immune response against WSSV because it helps to identify specific pathogens. According to researchers on shrimp immunology, controlling vibriosis by vaccination is a promising option in the aquaculture industry. Therefore, researchers have used Vibrio pathogen-derived materials or whole inactivated Vibrio cells to stimulate the shrimp's immune system against Vibrio by focusing on the two commercial species P. vannamei and P. monodon. Various ways of vaccinating shrimp have been tried, one of which is oral administration through nutrition. It has also been done by injection into the cephalothorax, intramuscular injection and by immersion. Of course, the types of vaccinations are different. Formalin-killed, heat-killed, heat and formalin-killed, Vibrio bacterial cells isolated from biofilm, outer membrane protein, and lipopolysaccharide are used in vaccines against vibriosis in shrimps. Of course, maintaining proper hygiene practices regarding the use of safety stimulants may be a good approach to maintaining shrimp aquaculture worldwide.
Audience Take Away:
- New technology of Shrimp vaccines would be considered and more explained
- Importance of Vaccine role in Control and Prevention of Infectious diseases in Shrimp would be negotiated
- Design of new vaccines and decreased of antibiotic resistance would be noticed